15.   Vertical Lime Kilns

Lime is used for producing cement for the construction industry.  Lime is very important for many other uses and chemical applications, to produce gypsum wallboard or drywall panels, to neutralize toxic chemicals, for air pollution control scrubbing systems, for neutralizing the acidity of soil for agriculture, and Vertical Lime Kilns are used for the production of sugar.  Lime is used for pigment in paints.  At the present, large horizontal rotating kilns are used to produce lime and cement worldwide, and lime kilns produce large amounts of air pollution.  A few small 250 ton/day capacity vertical lime kilns are used in Germany.  Horizontal rotating kilns consume large amounts of heat energy, require substantial maintenance, and the overall costs are substantially higher compared to vertical lime kilns.  The Vertical Kilns retain the generated heat and the efficiency is substantially better. 

Large 1,000+ ton/day capacity Vertical Lime Kilns are possible, are very energy efficient and easy to operate.  Minimal maintenance is required, because the limestone is brought to the top and into the kiln.  Then the limestone is burned (calcined) for a specified time of hours to produce powdered lime.  Then the lime is withdrawn at the bottom of the vertical kiln.  The withdrawal at the kiln bottom regulates the gravity flow of limestone and controls the calcining retention time in the kiln.  A clinker-grinding mill grinds any remaining chunks of limestone into powder.  The lime is then transported by truck trailers or by rail cars.  White cement is now very much in demand by the construction industry.

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Single Tower Configuration

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Multi Tower Configuration

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 Vertical Kiln - Elevation and Section View

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 Vertical Kiln - Typical Section

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Vertical Kiln - Closed Loop Gas Flow

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