ANALYSIS, FACTS AND SOLUTIONS FOR
GLOBAL WARMING / CLIMATE CHANGE / OZONE / OXYGEN / OIL / FOSSIL FUEL DEPLETION / CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS / HYDROGEN ENERGY REGENERATION / WORLD ENERGY RESEARCH
Manfred Zysk, August 2, 2007
Disclosure is proprietary & contains intellectual property
Copying and publishing is only authorized with author’s name
SHORT INTRODUCTION TO CURRENT CONDITIONS
This disclosure is made to the White House, the State Dept., the CIA, various Senate & Congressional Committees, and a total of 88 Senators and 284 Congressmen.
Only 40 to 50 years ago the world appeared to have no limits to energy consumption and industrial expansion. Today the world is faced with major converging problems such as peak oil, fossil fuel depletion, global warming, climate change, ozone depletion, carbon dioxide emissions, oxygen depletion, mineral and water depletion, chemical and radiation contamination of soil, deforestation, energy wars, and an uncertain future within a short time period.
All this and more appear to be overwhelming, and at this point somewhat hopeless to the average person, because the average person is very powerless to change impending conditions, and we have no direction from government leadership, including industry leadership and news media. In fact the average person has too many daily problems to cope with, so that little concern can be directed toward these impending national and worldwide problems. This is the same situation with most companies and corporations worldwide, and I can easily verify that.
How did we get into such a predicament? The answer is greed, unbridled profiteering, exploitation, dangerous foreign policies, and basically corrupt governments. Governments and industry leaders are afraid to disclose such information because stock markets could crash and would have disastrous effects upon the overall world economy, and politicians can expect to lose their jobs in retaliation. Virtually no person wants to be held accountable, or do their job.
Therefore all this is bad news, and I do not like this situation, but then again it is necessary to confront any impending problems when, or before problems occur, in order to eliminate or minimize any adverse or possible disasters. This is how I managed my large plant projects in order to meet fast-track engineering projects, equipment delivery schedules, on-time plant startups and contract deadlines. If we do not face these impending problems, then the government, industry, news media, including me would be grossly negligent and irresponsible. As a concerned citizen, and on behalf of the American people, it is my obligation and duty to inform our government of the present and impending problems this country is facing, and I further request that all appropriate and necessary action be taken, as is expected of this elected and representative government of this country, and to adequately fund my research and development of these products. This disclosure is submitted via fax to 88 Senators and 284 Congressmen by accessing my website:
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) EMISSIONS
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and other chemicals are responsible for global warming and climate change, and CO2 has also been the main contributor due to various technical and chemical production process operations. But CO2 has also been responsible for the beneficial Greenhouse gases for increased food production worldwide. Carbon Dioxide is consumed by all vegetation and is processed into Oxygen (O2) and then discharged into the atmosphere as Oxygen. CO2 and other gases in the atmosphere trap heat energy that would otherwise escape into space. This is called the greenhouse effect and increases the Earth’s average global temperature, called global warming. Hydrocarbons are compounds which contain only the two elements namely carbon and hydrogen. The hydrogen atom is bonded to the central carbon atom. Since the 1960’s PCB’s/CFC’s were produced in large quantities for various cooling applications, refrigerants, aerosol sprays, aromatic solvents, phenols, and foam-blowing agents. PCB’s/CFC’s (polychlorinated biphenyl and chlorofluorocarbon) were leaking, and large quantities were discharged into the atmosphere and stratosphere, and created ultimately large holes within the 9-mile to 25 mile (or 15 to 40 kilometers) altitude ozone layer. Ocean temperatures affect the amount of carbon dioxide gas the ocean water can absorb, including the dispersion through reverse osmosis, or retention.
A large portion of data is gleaned and presented in condensed form from existing research and publications from numerous organizations, the United Nations, universities and researchers from many countries. The noteworthy listing of credits to researchers is very extensive, and a listing is not provided. Detailed factual research information can be found on many websites with numerous links under Global Warming; Climate Change; CO2 Science; www.fueleconomy.gov; Carbon Dioxide, The Green Revolution, American Geophysical Union, NASA, NOAA, firstname.lastname@example.org; The Oil Drum; ScientificAmerican.com; Earth Observatory News; EO News Room; The British Antarctic Survey of the Natural Environment Research Council; Environment Canada; Energy Information Administration/Department of Energy; The World Oil & Gas Review; UNEP; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has produced an International policy on carbon dioxide and climate change; the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAOSTAT); Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, at Madison, Wisconsin, et cetera. The United States is a member of the UNFCCC.
The Antarctic and Arctic regions are undergoing major climate changes, and the ice shelves are melting at an alarming rate due to warmer temperatures and because of higher concentrations of CO2 and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere primarily from fossil fuel emissions. As the ice is melting, the water is distributed globally, and the water is concentrated in larger quantities in the Southern Hemisphere, because the earth’s landmasses are predominantly located in the Northern Hemisphere. The world’s landmass surface amounts to 30% of the Earth’s surface area, and the oceans comprise the other 70% of the world surface area. Al Gore’s presentation on Global Warming portrays the present and protracted future Climate Changes, but lacks adequate recommendations and solutions. The Earth is enclosed in an atmospheric and gravitational envelope, with its weight balanced on a drifting axis. The redistribution of melted water weight from the Arctic and Antarctic into the Southern Hemisphere causes the shifting of the North/South Pole Axis, which has occurred more rapidly, and has accelerated in the last 40 years. According to available research, the North Pole is moving into the direction of Russia at a rather fast pace.
The large amounts of CO2 and greenhouse gases that are produced from the Northern and Southern Hemisphere are fairly evenly distributed into the stratosphere, but gradually gravitate from the faster moving equatorial region to be flung toward the slower moving gravitational polar axis, and produce stratospheric clouds. The CO2 causes reactions between ozone gas, chlorine, methyl bromide and halogen gases. Most of the halogens are produced from Chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere by industrial processes, and their acidity destroys the ozone gas in the stratosphere at cold temperatures particularly below 108° F. As the greenhouse gases migrate by gravity toward the north and south poles, the greenhouse gas acidity already destroys some of the ozone, whereby the ozone layer becomes much thinner around the entire globe.
The greenhouse gases cause atmospheric warming at the Earth’s surface, but the greenhouse gases produce cooler temperatures in the stratosphere, and the ozone is consumed by the acidy of CO2 that occurs at temperatures of minus 108 degrees Fahrenheit. The reaction and acidity become more pronounced and concentrated in the stratosphere at the Antarctic south pole during the colder months of August, September and October and form large polar stratospheric clouds that expand beyond the entire Antarctic Continent (5,400,000 Sq. Miles), and form these large holes (up to 29.5 million Sq. Miles) of depleted ozone. The rotation of the Earth at the South Pole causes the greenhouse gases to rotate in a swirling irregular vortex that flexes and expands as far northward as to the tip of Chile in South America at the 50th Parallel. After the cold months from August through October, the ozone hole becomes much smaller in size because of warmer temperatures due to seasonal changes.
Likewise, the Arctic North-Pole region undergoes the same ozone depletion problem as the Antarctic South-Pole region, with the exception that the Arctic pole (North Pole) is slightly warmer by 5 to 7 degrees F. than the Antarctic (South Pole). The slightly warmer temperatures in the stratosphere at the Arctic pole region resulted in a smaller ozone hole so far. Continued greenhouse gas emissions are expected to deteriorate the Arctic ozone layer in the northern hemisphere as far southward as to the 50th parallel, or close to the northern border of the United States within the next 20 years. This ozone hole would expose over 700 million people to dangerous UV rays, including Canada, England, France, Germany, Ukraine, Scandinavia, and virtually all of Russia, along the entire 50th Parallel, according to the British Antarctic Survey of the Natural Environmental Research Council, and NASA’s Ames Research Center in California. Researchers obtained data from NASA’s Atmospheric Research Satellite from the North and South Pole regions.
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This in turn causes the Arctic Permafrost and peat bogs (comprising an area that is larger than France and Germany combined) to melt in the arctic region, and is releasing alarming amounts of methane gas into the atmosphere. These are factors that were unbeknownst before, and were not anticipated. As a result, the oceans are warming and reduce the flow of normal ocean currents, which then produce more hurricanes. During the last 150 years, human activity and fossil fuel emissions increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by 30%, and methane gas (CH4) by 150% concentrations. CO2 concentrations vary with temperatures and seasons, and can alter the weather patterns, because CO2 is water soluble, and the oceans function as a CO2 absorption sink, and have now reached 48% absorption of CO2. The oceans now are reaching the saturation point and are close to the maximum amount of solubility, and then, global warming would substantially accelerate, according to the journal Science. When reaching the saturation point, more CO2 will stay in the atmosphere, and CO2 accumulations into the stratosphere will accelerate.
The world-wide natural process can absorb annually 6.1 billion metric tons in the oceans, and 3.2 billion metric tons annually in the atmosphere. This only amounts to 9.3 billion metric tons. Total World CO2 Emissions amounted to 27 billion metric tons in 2004. Warm water discharges carbon dioxide, while cold water will absorb carbon dioxide. Researchers from many countries collected samples and data on dissolved carbon dioxide from 9,600 global ocean sites around the world. Dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations already have a detrimental effect on marine life. Some experts suggest that carbon dioxide is to be processed as a waste product into liquid or solid compounds, and then store it underground. Mr. Dan Arvizu, Director of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory claims that: “Carbon capture is easy,” and capturing the carbon from the smokestacks of coal-burning electrical plants would add almost 20% to a consumers’ electrical bill. Fuel giant British Petroleum and others have discussed storing the gas in depleted oil wells and caves. But those underground storage options aren’t airtight. “If only 1% leaks out a year, that means that in a century it’s all out,” Arvizu said. These gentlemen are considering or planning to sequester, process, transport and store carbon dioxide from the entire country in liquid or solid form amounting to an annual (2006) 12.03 billion metric tons in depleted oil wells and caves just in China and the USA alone? Such a business operation is truly mind-boggling and impossible to accomplish. In 2004, total World CO2 amounted to 27 billion tons (without data from 7 countries and Russia). CO2 is expected to increase by 59% to 75% by 2030, or to 43.7 billion tons annually by 2030, according to the US Energy Information Administration. When we look at these figures, then it is obvious that we have a major world-wide problem to solve. Trees and all vegetation convert carbon dioxide into oxygen, and some sources suggest to plant 10 billion trees, because oxygen is also being depleted.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY ESTIMATES
A multitude of world issues are converging and manifest themselves around future fossil fuel, energy resources, carbon dioxide, oxygen depletion, including water and mineral depletion. All combined alternative energy sources have limited energy potential to fulfill the needs of an existing and expanding world population. The only energy alternative is Hydrogen Regeneration. The oceans contain 11% hydrogen. Hydrogen cannot be consumed or used up, and therefore hydrogen can be reprocessed. Hydrogen Regeneration is a chemical process whereby hydrogen and various chemical elements can be combined to produce a highly chemical reaction and combustion, very much the same as gasoline is combined with oxygen, and then ignited. The hydrogen and other chemical elements are formulated to produce a high explosive force, but much larger than the combustion of gasoline. After the chemical reaction or combustion, the access generated energy is used to separate the hydrogen and other chemical elements into their original form through a regeneration process.
It would not be necessary to obtain a 100% separation of the chemical elements, and the same chemical elements can be regenerated several times by this regeneration process, while a small amount of impure or contaminated chemical properties can be discharged into waste containers for later reprocessing. When this hydrogen regeneration process is used for most energy applications, then the oceans contain sufficient hydrogen to last for an indefinite time period that has yet to be researched and calculated, and it can amount to several centuries of energy supply without any environmental consequences, if the world population can be stabilized. The hydrogen energy source needs to be fully researched, developed and analyzed. Please see very interesting additional information at: www.MZ-Energy.com
The US government and major industrial countries may decide to enter into a permanent economic depression, rather than making Hydrogen Regeneration Technology available at reasonable costs without any restrictions or conditions to all world countries for a new era in human development, peace and prosperity. The major industrial countries could also declare that world peace is dangerous to the world military establishment, the weapons dealers, the military industrial complex, and start new global wars through present type third party destabilization methods and schemes for acquiring cheap natural resources. Therefore the arms merchants want to supply all countries with more lethal weapons worldwide in an unending circus and with fear tactics.
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (IEA) July 10, 2007 warned in its latest medium- term oil market report that a market crunch is looming over around 2012, but some OPEC producers are breaking even more negative news. The IEA analysts stated “. . . the combination of declining spare oil capacity after 2010 and delayed new output will tighten fuel oil supplies, raising “serious concerns” for gas market security. Increased global competition and constrained export volumes will lead without doubt to higher price levels.” Analysts said the current depletion rate of Saudi Aramco fields, has increased from 8% in 2005 to around 12-14% in 2006. This would mean that new fields coming in production will only be there to cover lost production volumes elsewhere.
British Petroleum Statistical Review of World Energy 2007 said that (oil) consumption was rising more rapidly than production; it would be 40 years before it outstripped it. BP Group chief executive Tony Hayward said the report was a true recount of the world’s oil usage and availability. “I believe that decision-makers, businesses and members of the public will all benefit from the unbiased, carefully collected data to be found in this review,” Mr. Hayward said.
The National Petroleum Council (NPC), which is funded and staffed by the oil industry, published a misleading, inadequate and lacking factual data in their Executive Summary on July 9, 2007. This shows that the oil industry cannot be relied upon, and we appear to be standing on top of a steep hill, but we do not know how to manage the descend. An easy answer is then “it must be an act of God, yo’ all!!!” Nice going National Petroleum Council.
The ASPO states: “Because oil provides 40% of the globe’s energy, and because the energy system is so large and slow to change, the costs of acting immediately to begin mitigating the inevitable supply crunch are dwarfed by the economic penalties of further delay. By failing to urge timely action, the NPC misleads the public and places the nation’s future at risk. The National Petroleum Council (NPC) seems oblivious to geopolitical and economic reality. Nowhere in the executive summary are the countries of Iraq or Iran mentioned or leaders such as Putin or Chavez. The word “OPEC” appears only once, in a footnote.
“In the final analysis, the NPC Study is woefully inadequate, leaving the Secretary of Energy and the American public with inadequate warning of the huge economic and social risks that many experts believe are just around the corner,” says Udall.
Scientists and oil industry experts of the Oil Depletion Analysis Centre in London predicted on July 16, 2007 that “A worldwide oil shortage is due in four years – not in 40 years.” The prediction was made in reply to the above British Petroleum report.
Dr. Campbell disclosed that industry and government is reluctant to face up to the impending end of oil, including denials of climate change. Dr. Campbell explains: “When I was the boss of an oil company I would never tell the truth. It’s not part of the game.”
The central African countries from Somalia and Ethiopia across to Nigeria and Angola at the Atlantic Ocean are considered to hold substantial quantities of oil. When fully knowing and viewing the true past history and present oil operations by Western Oil Companies in Somalia, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Angola, and in general all of Africa, Iraq, Afghanistan, Lebanon, Syria, Iran, Turkey, OPEC, Mexico and Venezuela, then the rosy anticipation of great riches quickly vanish.
Regardless of the news media spin, there is nothing that suggests that the present Mid-East destabilization could improve our oil supply in the future, but instead with peak oil and global warming et cetera, energy conditions can only deteriorate further. When the USA sold weapons and chemical weapons to both Iran and Iraq, that has caused substantial damage and permanent distrust of the USA in the Mid-East. Our present administration has sold off all of Iraq’s major industries, banks, including their oil pipelines to our companies and foreign companies. Obviously the entire Mid-East will do whatever they can to stop the USA from occupying the Mid-East. This is the past and present history.
The world’s dependency on oil has become far greater than most countries comprehend, and when oil production drops by 10-20%, then it is too late, and the world economy will spiral into a depression. If we are not able to find world oil deposits at a rate of 24 billion barrels of oil every year for the next 10 years, then we can expect to slide into a worldwide depression within 10 years. The oil companies and oil exporting countries wield world-wide power and can totally influence worldwide governments, banking, insurance, the stock market, the military industrial complex, defense department, the automobile industry, steel industry, mineral industry, construction industry, transportation, airlines, public utilities, news media, religions, labor unions, as well as state and local governments. The Western World, as well as the rest of the world’s countries have become addicted to oil for all food supply, transportation, employment and livelihood. Every facet of life has become dependent upon the supply of fossil fuel. Therefore, the oil companies and their compatriots have developed a system of unparalleled power in government with numerous profiteering schemes.
However, when the oil companies and oil exporters refuse to accept peak oil, and refuse to accept the inevitable end of world oil supply (presently at 30.5 billion barrels annual consumption), and at the same time exercise control over the world’s economy, and control the research, development and technology of any substitutes to oil from being developed and marketed, then the world economy and human civilization will experience major economic consequences of unprecedented proportions – obviously.
Please see: www.MZ-Energy.com
According to the fundamentalists and their strange religious beliefs, or indoctrination, all that oil and black gold (Texas Tea), was created only 6000 years ago. But when these fundamentalists begin to comprehend that the Earth is actually many tens of millions of years old, especially when gasoline reaches $7-10 per gallon, then it becomes obvious that their indoctrination has failed them. Their rationale cannot explain how all that oil was deposited 6000 feet or 10000 feet under the ground in many layers and depths. Somehow the oil companies and their fundamentalist friends do not understand either, that major cataclysmic events occurred on this planet Earth during many intervals of over many millions of years. Huge regions with oil rich top soil, vegetation, peat moss, forests and ocean sediment on this planet were covered and then buried with thick layers of silt, sand, stones, rocks and oceans.
For example, it is possible to find an oil deposits at depths of 3000 feet and another oil deposit immediately below at 4000 or 12000 foot depths. During these cataclysmic events, (huge earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, meteors, tsunamis and earth plate compressions caused the formation and creation of mountain ranges), the location of present magnetic north-south poles have moved, and also reversed direction. Therefore oil can be found in places, in which we do not expect to find oil. These catastrophic events and with prehistoric dinosaurs could not possibly have occurred all within a time span of the last 6,000 years. This is proven, and is very simple to comprehend, even for fundamentalists, and regardless of their indoctrination.
The supply of oil from all world oil reserves of 1.08 trillion barrels or 1.29 trillion barrels of oil for a period of 34-40 years is irrelevant at this point. When total world oil reserves decline at an average of 30.5 billion barrels of oil + a 2.45% decline in oil production annually, as has been officially estimated, then severe economic consequences will occur within 5 to 10 years, while the world population increases by 75-100 million annually, or by 375-750 million people within 5 to 10 years. Present USA oil consumption is 7.5 billion barrels of oil annually.
BP, the oil companies, and the United States government simply want to ignore these facts, and plan to control all remaining world oil reserves. This is becoming a worldwide disaster, particularly for the oil rich Arab Nations, who ultimately will unite with all the Moslem/Islamic religious faiths, and drive us from their lands, because we are not able to occupy all Arab Nations. Because of our greed, we have then lost our oil suppliers, resulting in the shut down of many remaining oil fields. The oil exporting countries will conserve their oil exports until oil reaches over $100-120 per barrel, and they do know of how oil dependent we are, and how our stock market works. Please see additional information at: www.MZ-Energy.com
On June 28, 2007, the OPEC countries plan to invest $630 billion in oil infrastructure to increase capacity by 35 million barrels per day over a period of up to year 2020, or an average of $48.5 billion annually. This would increase CO2 emissions by 149.2 million tons per day by the year of 2020. Even if this were possible, what would be the consequences of additional CO2 emissions into the atmosphere and changes in global warming, climate change, droughts and food production?
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY OUTLOOK 2007
The IEO admits that their world energy projections are based on uncertainties and assumptions from various sources, and their projections can substantially vary depending upon economic and political instabilities with data that has been incorporated from the year 2004.
A press release on June 28, 2007 stated that: OPEC countries plan to invest $630 billion in oil infrastructure to increase capacity by 35 million barrels per day (or 12.46 b/b/year) over a period of up to 2020. The increase in capacity for world petroleum and liquids consumption (35 million barrels per day) happens to be the same amount as the IEO projection that is needed from 2004 at 83 m/b/d to 118 m/b/d in 2030.
A 35 million barrel per day increase in oil capacity or 42.16% will produce an additional 11.4 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide (approximately), for a combined world total of approximately 38.44 billion metric tons of annual carbon dioxide emissions. Global emissions of CO2 will hit 43.7 billion tons in 2030.
Estimated World Petroleum & Liquids consumption 2004 = 83 million barrels per day
Projected World Petroleum & Liquids consumption 2015 = 97 million barrels per day
Projected World Petroleum & Liquids consumption 2030 = 118 million barrels per day
Total world energy consumption (including all oil shale, tar sands, and coal) is supposed to increase from 2004 to 2030 by 57%. The present annual USA oil consumption is 7.5 billion barrels of oil.
The transportation sector alone accounted for 68% of oil consumption in 2005. The World Transportation Sector is supposed to increase liquids (petroleum) from 2004-2030 by 23.8 million barrels per day, or an average of 915,385 barrels per year from 2004 through 2030.
The US Energy Information Administration and the US Geological Survey have produced some of this data. It is simply not possible to continue, because of the unbelievable optimistic projections and unsubstantiated promises or assumptions of a virtual glut of all hydrocarbons for the next 23 years, and for the entire world. The released data has not convinced me, and has not been satisfactory. Therefore, I am releasing a simplified analysis from the EIA and USGS of the known and existing research data, and as follows:
Overall, World Energy is projected to increase by 57% from 2004 to 2030. If we were to apply present trend levels, existing conditions and approximations, if applied, then an increase of approximately 57% (or 59%) of CO2 emissions would be generated as well by the year 2030. This is in addition to the annual world CO2 emissions of 27.04 billion metric tons of 2004. Therefore when 27.04 billion metric tons and 59% or 15.95 billion metric tons are added, then the annual world CO2 emissions total 42.99 (or 43.7 EIA) billion metric tons by the year of 2030. Per EIA, by 2025 global CO2 emissions could hit 40.05 billion metric tons annually, from the EIA forecast issued last year.
If the oceans are close to the peak of maximum CO2 absorption at this time, then further increases in carbon dioxide with annual 42.99 (or 43.7) billion metric tons into the stratosphere would have disastrous effects, and produce indeed a scenario similar as described by Al Gore involving global warming, world climate change, droughts, and Hurricanes (as a result of high humidity and atmospheric pressure), as well as associated economic/social consequences on a worldwide scale. This would or can occur if present trends and projections in fossil fuel consumption continue, and generate accordingly the resulting carbon dioxide emissions. But it is doubtful for the oil industry to meet the future world energy demands for continuous economic expansion for the next 20-40 years.
Unless radiation is at least 90% contained, nuclear power is a health hazard to all countries. Any renewable energy sources (solar, wind, bio-fuel) amount to small, short-term energy fixes during the post-peak oil era. Hydrogen Regeneration is the only long term sustaining energy source for the global population, and would meet all our future energy needs. My disclosure of details of various energy research and processes have deliberately been withheld, due to gross unethical and illegal activities by government and corporations.
The reason for me claiming proprietary and intellectual property is to keep the corporations and government from taking advantage and exploiting my research, and bilking many countries of their prosperity and future social progress. The corporations and government’s only function is to generate huge profits at the expense of the general population and to inhibit prosperity to the public, by keeping wages down, eliminating labor unions, reducing employee benefits (retirement & medical care), gutting the public school system, outsourcing jobs to foreign countries, and having to compete with the labor force of the poorest countries. This is destroying the United States and our established economy, or what is left of our strong economy. Please see: www.MZ-Energy.com
CARBON DIOXIDE AND FOSSIL FUEL
Some experts have suggested that Carbon Dioxide be sequestered and pumped into the depths of the oceans, where the carbon dioxide could be safely stored for many centuries. Minimum CO2 leakage to the ocean surface is expected. Other plans for CO2 storage include abandoned and operating oil wells to force any remaining oil to a pump-able surface. Old coal and iron ore mine shafts are considered CO2 storage sites. Every estimation and conclusion leads to the realization that this will simply not happen, because the automobile industry in the USA strongly opposes to increase gasoline mileage to 35 miles per gallon, while the technology is readily available to 40-45 miles per gallon, and has been proven by Europe and Japan. This further shows that the US government has little or no concern about the US economy, energy efficiency, employment, poverty, or prosperity. For whom are our public servants working? The corporations maybe?
Forests are great CO2 absorption sinks, and also balance the H2O and CO2 Greenhouse Gas dispersion rate, but the disappearance of forests reduces rainfall, cause droughts and increase global warming. Again, all forests and vegetation consume carbon dioxide and convert carbon dioxide into oxygen. Some environmentalists suggest that 10 billion trees should be planted to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Gasoline, according to statistics produces 20.3 pounds of CO2 for every gallon (6.3 pounds) of gasoline. Diesel oil produces 22.2 pounds of CO2 per gallon. When combusting gasoline, most of the weight of CO2 is produced by the combining process of oxygen and other gases. China in 2006 produced a total of 6.23 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide, and the USA produced 5.8 billion metric tons in 2006 for a combined total of 12 billion metric tons of CO2. Total energy related World CO2 production amounted to 27.044 billion metric tons in 2004. These large amounts of CO2 concentrations contribute and accelerate global warming. The United States is the 2nd largest producer of CO2, but released an average of about 40,500 pounds (20.2 tons) of carbon dioxide per person in 2006. Currently, the land and oceans absorb about half of the carbon dioxide produced by human activity; most is the result from the burning of fossil fuel.
The CO2 is a natural occurring gas. Plants need it to live and grow. Over the billions of years, plants have used and trapped a large portion of the CO2 in the earth’s atmosphere. When large cataclysmic events occurred repeatedly on this planet, vegetation and forests were buried under thick layers of silt, rocks and water of several thousand feet, which eventually were compressed to produce oil, natural gas and coal. The rise in CO2 concentrations is directly related to the rate of CO2 emissions. Then, humans evolved in the last few million years, in an environment with reduced CO2 concentrations. With the industrialized age, all fossil fuels are consumed in large quantities and now generate large amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere and stratosphere. Environment Canada stated “If this buildup of CO2 continues, the results will be disastrous. Cities will be flooded and farmland will be destroyed. Millions of people may die of starvation.”
From the 15th Century to the year 2000, the Planet Earth has lost approximately 10 billion acres of trees and forests, or about 54%. Since then, the Earth is experiencing about a 33% Oxygen reduction in the atmosphere, while the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) content has quadrupled. It is estimated by scientists that in less than 100 years the low Oxygen (O2) content becomes a threat to Human Survival, and mass starvation may occur amounting to more than 60% of the World Population, unless Oxygen can be replenished through large-scale reforestation and vegetation. Trees, forest and vegetation require Carbon Dioxide, and through photosynthesis all vegetation convert the carbon dioxide, and then discharge any unnecessary oxygen into the atmosphere. Some persons advocate the planting of 10 billion trees on an emergency basis to replenish the loss of oxygen.
Our great President Ronald Reagan announced to the world that trees cause air pollution, and this announcement cleared the way to cut down our National Forests. Unfortunately our news media gorged themselves on such intellect and wisdom, but I did not notice a single comment that trees consume carbon dioxide and release oxygen, and it was obvious that the President of the United States has flunked 3rd grade public school. The height of his 8 years as President of the United States was his advocacy of school prayer, positively an incredible performance and feat.
HYDROGEN & CARBON DIOXIDE –
THE MIRACLE OF FOOD
Food production has increased 50% in 25 years, and CO2 has been credited with being a great contributor for feeding 2 billion people in the last 25 years. There is evidence that the CO2 increase is a significant contributor to the greenhouse revolution, and at this point we don’t want to do anything to reduce that contribution in the future. The risk of reducing CO2 can be potentially enormous, including starvation on a global scale according to various research reports. Most importantly, we do not know the risk associated with slowing the carbon dioxide increase. In considering the results, the elevated CO2 can affect soil aggregation in an agricultural system, where a soil stabilizing effect of CO2 would be clearly advantageous.
During the last 40 years, nearly one third of the world’s arable land was lost by erosion, with a current loss tare of more than 10 million hectares per year. Hence, a CO2-mediated increase of soil aggregate stability could be of particular importance in agro ecosystems. Scientists clearly demonstrate that mineral soil C can increase measurably in response to a step-function increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations that the C storage capacities of mineral soils – even those with large organic matter stocks may be capable of serving as C sinks if inputs increase as a result of passive CO2 fertilization. A meta-analysis including multifactor studies over a wide range of climatic conditions suggests that soil C is likely to be a general response to CO2 enrichment. The earth vegetation soil-carbon-sequestration process can act as a significant brake on the atmospheric CO2 content and help to reduce the magnitude of CO2-induced global warming. The USDA should be leading the Greening Research, but scientists claim it is doing nothing. Bangladesh has managed to feed its population, despite the dramatic decline in technological inputs.
The essential materials and substances for human life are food, water and oxygen. Almost all food is hydrogen and carbon dioxide, either consumed directly by plants, or indirectly, when animals and humans consume plants. Plants consume almost entirely carbon dioxide for food. Humans, animals and plants require very small quantities of other essential substances and material in the form of vitamins and minerals, besides water. Likewise, plants receive needed supplements in the form of nutrients or fertilizer. All consumed food by humans, animals or plants are derived primarily from carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen. Plants depend and consume almost entirely carbon dioxide as a food source. Most people do not realize that their food around the world comes from plants that grow and process carbon dioxide.
Nitrogen fertilizers are produced from natural gas. The US produces annually 12 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer, 10 million tons of phosphorus and 2 million tons of potassium fertilizer. Farmers usually apply more than double of nitrogen to obtain maximum crop yields. Much of nitrogen seeps into groundwater and contaminates drinking water. The US used to be the largest exporter of nitrogen in the 1980’s, but now is the largest importer of nitrogen fertilizer because of the price of natural gas. Natural gas is the primary feed stock for nitrogen fertilizer. Natural gas costs have soared from the year 2000 to 2007 by approximately 5 times.
The biggest confusion is that CO2 is not a fertilizer. But, fertilizer is to plants what vitamins are to people. Therefore, CO2 is not a fertilizer; it is food, in fact the principle food source for plants. Each plant’s body, and therefore all bodies of living things, are built primarily from CO2 and calcium (bones). Every biology book shows that CO2 is essential for all life. “The Greening Theory says that increasing CO2 should increase plant growth. So does a huge body of experimental evidence – thousands of experiments. So does observation, ranging from commercial greenhouses using CO2, to the recent global carbon sink findings.” Plants use the same resources to process CO2 and nitrogen, but it gives priority to CO2. Elevated levels of CO2 can block the transfer of nitrite, the compound the plants produce from nitrate into photosynthesizing structures.
Under the same conditions, the plants made ample use of ammonium-based fertilizer. Whereas plants receiving nitrate fertilizer increased in size by only 24%, the ammonium fed variety grew by nearly 49%. In addition, the protein content of the plants that received ammonium rose by 73%, as compared to the nitrate-nourished plant having a 32% protein content. Mr. Arnold Bloom of the University of California, at Davis states: “We expect that the data from this study will have real-world implications for crop production. In well-drained soils, generally devoted to wheat production, nitrate is the common form of nitrogen available in the soil. This study suggests that a shift to increase ammonium availability might be needed.”
NEGATIVE GOVERNMENT POLICY
Despite the fact that carbon dioxide is the primary source of the food consumed by all living things, including humans, government policy toward increased availability of this source is uniformly negative. No doubt this is because governments and the public first became aware of increasing carbon dioxide as an issue because of the possible dangers of global warming and climate change. Public policy requires a balanced look at both sides of any proposed action.
ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE SOLUTIONS
Some experts advocate the pumping of millions of tons of carbon dioxide into the deep oceans, because the global warming will accelerate due to the consumption of all fossil fuels, while they last. The ocean depths are supposed to retain and store the CO2 supposedly for several hundred years. This may cause much of marine life to become extinct. Of the 27 billion metric tons of CO2, the oceans and atmosphere absorbed 9.2 billion metric tons of CO2 in 2004, and to store an additional 18 billion metric tons of CO2 annually is simply not possible by a highly profit- oriented western world. Per IEA last year, global CO2 emissions are estimated to be 40 billion metric tons annually in the year 2025.
Obviously, carbon dioxide needs to be controlled at the source of combustion, or at the point of separation from fossil fuel resources at the oil refineries and coal fired electric power plants. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can be separated and processed into plant food, or what would be more commonly known as fertilizer. Carbon dioxide, ammonium and hydrogen can be liquefied into a solution toward a basic plant food that can be sprayed onto soil and agricultural fields during relatively cool temperatures in the fall months. Sufficient concentration of carbon dioxide solution is dispersed onto the fields to last for the next 3-5 years as a substitute to nitrogen fertilizer. The fields then would be plowed at depths approx. 60%+ below the root depths of any plants and any vegetables or food producing plants. The tilling of soil and fall rains further disperses the carbon dioxide food/fertilizer compound into the soil. The normal fall raining season keeps these nutrients in the soil with adequate moisture.
Over 40 years ago, I was considering various methods for recycling air pollution particulates and noxious gases into various products, including CO2 fertilizer/plant food. The significance and importance for future global food production is one of the most important future global developments, provided that the world population is stabilized at current levels. Unfortunately, little or no research has been conducted in the United States, until just recently, because carbon dioxide was considered a useless waste product, and too expensive for sequestration, and only nitrogen was the only commonly used plant fertilizer for agriculture. Now carbon dioxide/hydrogen/ammonium/lime (calcium) formula solution can be marketed as a valuable food fertilizer product. A lime base with hydrogen are very important for future food production. China produced 6.23 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide, and the USA produced 5.8 billion metric tons in 2006, with a combined total of over 12 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide. If the oil supply becomes scarce, it is assumed that China will resort to higher coal consumption, resulting in higher carbon dioxide emissions than as presently estimated.
The School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology at Lanzhou University in Lanzhou, China published their research involving “Effects of elevated CO2 concentration, irrigation and nitrogenous fertilizer application on the growth and yield of spring wheat in semi-arid areas.” The following is extremely significant, and is copied in part of relevant importance toward major improvements in future food production. Field experiments at Dingxi Agricultural Experiment Station during 2000-2002, the CO2 concentration increased to 14.5, 40 and 54.5 mmol mol, respectively, by NH4HCO3 (involving CO2) application, direct application of CO2 gas and combination of fertilizer NH4HCO3 plus CO2 application, which are equal to CO2 concentration of the Earth’s atmosphere in the next 5, 15 and 20 years. The results showed that elevated CO2 concentration owing to CO2 application leads to remarkable increase in leaf area index and shoot biomass, and also generates the higher value of leaf area duration that can benefit the photosynthesis in the growth stage and yield increase in crop compared than the no CO2 application treatment. When CO2 concentration was elevated by 14.4, 40 and 54.5 mmol mol-1 with irrigation, correspondingly, the grain yield increased by 6.3, 13.1 and 19.8% respectively, whereas without irrigation and fertilization, the grain yield increased by only 4.2% when CO2 concentration increased to 40 mmol mol-1. Meanwhile, irrigation and fertilization can result in larger and deeper root system and have significantly positive influences on higher value of root/shoot and water use efficiency. The grain yields in irrigation, irrigation plus NH3NO3 application and irrigation plus application of NH4HCO3 treatments are 73.4, 148.0 and 163.6% higher than that of non-irrigated and non-fertilized treatment, suggesting that both irrigation and fertilizer application contribute to remarkable increase in crop yield. Highest water use efficiency and grain yield consistently occurred in the treatment with 90 mm irrigation plus fertilizer NH4HCO3 and elevated CO2 concentration (54.5 mmol mol-1), suggesting that this combination has an integrated beneficial effect on improving water use and grain yield of spring wheat. These results may offer help to maintain and increase crop yields in semi-arid areas.
This is welcome news for most countries worldwide, because the cost of food is a major expense to the human race. It appears that an abundance of food can be produced by a broad agricultural system in most countries, and food imports could be reduced for a survivable planet. The world population will benefit not only from lower food costs, but major growth improvements can be produced for all vegetation and forests. Several types of time-release chemical fertilizer formulas which would include carbon dioxide, hydrogen, lime and perhaps natural pesticides would be very advantageous for growing crops and vegetation. This research and development is of utmost importance at this time of global warming, climate change and ozone depletion from carbon dioxide and other chemicals. To sequester or trap 43 billion metric tons of CO2 annually by the year 2030 appears an impossible achievement, even if 10 or 13 billion metric tons were absorbed by the oceans and the atmosphere to a reduced amount to 30 to 33 billion metric tons of CO2 by the year 2030.
The solution to global warming and climate change would be to take measures of reducing carbon dioxide by employing all cost effective methods, and particularly by developing hydrogen regeneration processes for all applications as soon as possible.
The negative attitude of the American government and greedy multi-national corporations are as usual a hindrance to new technology and needed solutions. Everything revolves around politics and maximum profiteering and exploitation, according to some senators and congressmen. When the US government, companies and corporations treat engineers and scientists like trash in order to steal research, then obviously the reaction from these engineers and scientists is to expose such illegal activities by these oppressors and thieves. Federal lawsuits against companies and corporations are being controlled by federal judges, magistrates, and the government with illegal procedures and unlawful (criminal) tactics, so that very few lawsuits reach a jury trial. Obviously when such life-threatening criminal activities are employed to steal research of great economic value, then the engineers and scientists become very cautious and reluctant to enter into any business affairs with such corrupt companies and governments, and then publish some of their research on the Internet with some international protection of intellectual property rights.
Please read major research disclosures to US presidents, US government officials, and federal agencies, including 86 Senators and over 435 congressmen in 2006. Only 2 Senators and 3 Congressmen replied. Senator McCain suggested that I contact the 2005 Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance for financial assistance to the American people, The United States Government Manual, the Foundation Directory, and sent me a copy of “Grants Information for Constituents.”
Senator Ron Wyden informs me: “To obtain a federal grant from the U.S Department of Energy, I urge you to first visit the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance at www.cfda.gov. Please review these grant programs with caution, as many of them do have deadlines and specific eligibility requirements.” Second you may visit Grants.gov website on current federal funding opportunities from over 900 grant programs, or explore grant research opportunities for yourself, you should visit the Small Business Innovation Research page on the USDOE website. These programs are designed specifically for small businesses and individuals who do not qualify for grants found in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance. If we are serious in our efforts to achieve the goal of American energy independence, we must develop a balanced, long-term plan that provides incentives to encourage energy conservation, increases energy efficiency, and further develops alternative forms of energy. As a member of the Senate Energy Committee, rest assured that I will continue to support Oregon’s solar industry.
I did not respond, as these activities are too time consuming and turn out to be no more than some miniscule grant handouts, which are absolutely inadequate to be effective or worthwhile. This is just a cat and mouse game, and all this falls far short of what is required and necessary. The Dept. of Energy stated that to develop alternative energy requires several decades and several Trillion Dollars.
The big question is who will control and acquire these trillions of dollars, and what actual results will be achieved? The Military Industrial Complex and our Government desperately are trying to keep the never-ending war machine going at all costs. Hydrogen Regeneration processes should not be used to control the World Economy by anyone with empirical ambitions, corporations or country. Energy is the very essence of all technology, and is vital for a promising future of this planet.
General Motors Corp. stated in January 2007 that a Hydrogen Car would not be available for approximately another 30 years. Toyota is doing some research with hydrogen energy. To bring hydrogen cars and hydrogen energy on line for public use requires a minimum of 15 years, because of the vast amount of investments needed for nationwide availability and public purchasing power, including the financing of a whole range of new hydrogen energy applications, such as for electric power plants, cement plants, trucks, buses, et cetera. With Peak Oil, Depletion of Fossil Fuel, Global Warming and rising oil prices, we are already entering a rather critical point that appears to result in major economic and multiple energy crisis’s converging simultaneously upon the USA and the World. All combined alternative energy resources are not adequate for future demands. In order to provide jobs for another 10-15% of our present population, the United States could utilize another 15-20% of additional energy supply. For much more information
please see: www.MZ-Energy.com
This disclosure is proprietary and contains intellectual property.
Copying and publishing is only authorized with author’s name
1655 S. Elm Street, #5
Canby, Oregon 97013
August 2, 2007
The Hon. President George W. Bush June 5, 2006
1600 Pennsylvania Avenue N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20515
The enclosed CD and/or e-mails are sent to President Bush, and various members of the Senate and Congress. The content pertains to important energy research for federal funding consideration.
- Hydrogen/hydrogen regeneration, including the processing of hydrogen from ocean water.
- New nuclear energy plant concept with vacuum chamber radiation containment and vacuum chamber radiation containment for nuclear waste, and for processing shale oil and tar sands.
- An air pollution control system (Flue Gas Neutralization) for coal fired electric power plants, refineries, chemical plants, fertilizer plants, cement plants, steel mills, and foundries.
- A carburetor that vaporizes (atomizes) gasoline for internal combustion engines and oil burners that vaporize (atomize) oil for boilers and other applications.
- Concrete panels with built-in vacuum chambers for building houses, factories, shops, office buildings, warehouses, schools, stores, hospitals, apartment buildings. A typical house contains vacuum chamber concrete panels for all interior and exterior walls, floor and ceiling.
- Oil/Gas/Minerals Research – Electronic Exploration System (Very Important)
- Multi-bladed S-rotor Savonius Windmills (high efficiency)
- Large Lime Kilns for producing cement with high-energy efficiency
- A small commercial jet plane similar in size to a standard car. Please see illustrations.
These products have previously been submitted for appropriations, but federal agencies claim that I would have to forfeit ownership rights. Obviously this is unacceptable to me, and I claim legal and intellectual property rights. Please inform me if our government & leadership wish to fund my disclosed intellectual property research and products within three (3) weeks. I am releasing my energy research for funding consideration to circumvent the impending worldwide energy and resulting economic problems. Thank you for your consideration and please respond as soon as possible.
With best regards,
WORLD OIL & ENERGY RESEARCH
CONDUCTED BY MANFRED ZYSK SINCE 1963
GASOLINE & OIL VAPORIZATION
NUCLEAR RADIATION CONTAINMENT
HYDROGEN & HYDROGEN REGENERATION
FLUE GAS NEUTRALIZATION SYSTEM FOR COAL
VACUUM CHAMBER WALL CONSTRUCTION
S-ROTOR SAVONIUS WINDMILLS
VERTICAL LIME KILNS
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Disclosure is proprietary & contains intellectual property
Welcome and please read entire content
WORLD OIL & ENERGY RESEARCH
By Manfred Zysk
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Copying & distribution is recommended and authorized
Chevron recently stated: “Unfortunately, as already noted, it will be foolish to assume there is 1 trillion barrels of oil remaining.”
According to British Petroleum Statistical Review of World Energy “…we can reasonably conclude that the claim that there are still 1.1 trillion barrels of oil reserves remaining is simply false, a figure off by 300 billion barrels even if we do not also adjust the figure to factor in consumption for the past 17 years.”
The International Energy Agency now states that 33 of 48 biggest oil-producing countries have passed their peak. All super-giant fields in the world are in decline.
General Motors owns the Opel Auto Company in Germany. The Opel gets 50 miles per gallon, but General Motors refuses to improve gasoline milage to 28-30 miles per gallon in the USA. General Motors has terminated thousands of employees in the USA, while expanding their manufacturing in India and is hiring many people in India.
On Nov. 7, 2005, AlterNet released an exclusive article pertaining to the International Energy Agency: “This morning the International Energy Agency (IEA) issued a statement saying that the world will have sufficient energy supplies for the next quarter century. However, the statement noted the necessity of the investment of $17 trillion in the supply train in order to maintain sufficiency for so long. Expressions of concern have been voiced by corporations, prominent organizations, and knowledgeable individuals, including Chevron Texaco, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Volvo, Ford Motor Company Executive Vice President Mark Fields, the Chinese Offshore Oil Corporation’s chief economist, and numerous petroleum scientists and oil industry analysts.”
All the oceans contain 11% hydrogen, and fresh water contains 10% hydrogen. Hydrogen and a hydrogen regeneration process in a closed loop system can produce an unlimited supply of energy for the entire world for hundreds of years. The quantity of useable hydrogen energy sources from the oceans can be researched, proven and verified. I have tried to obtain government funding for over 35 years, without success. This disclosure is very condensed and contains only a small fraction of my experiences for the last 43 years.
Mr. Geoffrey Ballard, the pioneer of fuel cells was warned by a former high-level oil company executive that “the oil companies are ganging up on you” because the oil companies did not want to lose gasoline’s monopoly over the transportation market, and the U.S automakers and oil companies became openly hostile.
ENERGY RESEARCH & PROJECTS
By Manfred Zysk
Ø Disclosure is proprietary & contains intellectual property ×